Can A Genealogy DNA Testing Help Determine My History?

Have you ever wondered if you are related to others with the same surname or have an uncertain family or personal history? Genealogical DNA testing is a viable option. It allows families and individuals to determine familial history, ancestral make-up, and even historic country of origin.

General DNA Testing

The DNA Clinic considers the standard 46 chromosomes that each person has from birth. This genetic code does not change and remains fixed throughout a person’s lifetime. The X chromosome comes from the biological mother and the additional X or Y chromosome is inherited from the biological father. Each person contains their unique strand of DNA in each cell.

Genealogical testing is a type of test that can be used to determine information about genealogy or personal ancestry by comparing a person’s results to others from the same lineage or to various ethnic groups, both modern and historic. A genealogical test uses a sample of a person’s cheek swab. This can be collected easily and painlessly. These collected cells are broken down in a solution and the DNA is visualized using specialized equipment. Each person’s unique DNA is recorded and tested against known DNA to determine various facts about their family history.

Benefits of Genealogical DNA Testing

For those who have ever wondered about the origins of their paternal line, specialized equipment available today analyzes a person’s genetic markers. Some of the tests performed can show the migration routes of paternal ancestors or maternal ancestors. Additionally, a person can learn which of 200 populations he or she is most genetically similar to and what proportions of that ancestry comes from the seven continents. For example, a person may learn that his heritage is 50% African and 50% European. This test can also determine a person’s recessive gene variant that they carry. For example, a person can determine if they carry the recessive gene for red hair and whether there is a strong chance of having red-haired children.

Genealogical testing also may generate a list of surnames that appear in a person’s family tree which can help uncover common ancestors between people. Since a shared surname is not necessarily indicative that two people are related, this testing reveals if two people or families are related and, if so, to what extent. Since many people live in an area of the world where certain last names are common, this information helps to resolve any ambiguity in a family tree.

Finally, many people enjoy knowing their origins. While there are many reasons to use genealogical testing, one of the main reasons reported is that most people enjoy learning about their personal history. With genealogical testing, a simple test can reveal a great deal of information about a person’s extended family and origins.

Having a Genealogical DNA Test Performed

Having a genealogical test perform varies depending on the testing center, but typically a person receives a kit in the name with a short form and a cheek swab kit. After completing the form and cheek swab, the results are mailed back to the lab where the DNA is tested. The results are then returned back to the individual along with an explanation of test results. This type of DNA testing is very simple to perform and many people take advantage of genealogical testing.

Genetic Predisposition DNA Testing

Many people today are interested in taking care of their current health and preventing future diseases and conditions. Many tools offer the average person an in-depth look at their disease susceptibility but DNA testing is one of the most effective technologies available today. Because so much of a person’s health lies in their genetic code, reasons for genetic predisposition DNA testing are numerous.

Predisposition For Disease

Many diseases including Type 2 Diabetes have a strong genetic component, but can be prevented by taking early measures. By understanding the risk of developing certain diseases and conditions, individuals can make informed lifestyle changes to minimize these risks. These preventative steps not only decrease future disease risk, they also improve a person’s quality of life. Genetic testing ensures better medical care and checkups. The results of the test allow a person’s doctor to know which diseases to look for and which health checks to take periodically.

Personalized Medications

Each person responds differently to medications depending on their genetics. In some cases, a person may have to use several different medications before finding one that has the optimal results. DNA testing can be used to evaluate a person’s response to certain medications and the potential side effects, allowing both individuals and their healthcare team to make informed decisions and avoid the guessing game.

Understanding Physical and Mental Abilities

While environment certainly plays a large role in a person’s mental and physical abilities, many people are predisposed towards excelling at certain sports, musical instruments, mathematics, or many other areas. Genetics allow people to understand areas where they have a larger potential to perform well. All this information, encoded in the genetic code, can be discovered through testing. A person may then use this information to direct energy to certain areas or fields, once again taking the guesswork out of the equation.

Nutritional Needs

Each person has different nutritional needs depending on genes and the surrounding environment. Although genomes are about 99 percent similar, that one percent makes up a huge part of the differences that is responsible for each person’s uniqueness. The nutritional needs of each person are the area of a new branch of food science known as personalized nutrition. With a nutrigenetic analysis, a person can understand their specific nutritional needs and work to develop a diet that will lead to an optimal intake of nutrients.

Informed Decisions

Keep in mind that while genetic testing offers many benefits, it’s simply one part of creating a healthy lifestyle. A person’s health depends on the complex interaction between genetics, environment, and behaviors. Genetics are an essential part, but only part of the equation. An individual can use this information to make personal behavioral and environmental changes. A doctor and healthcare team may also be able to offer patients expert guidance and advice with this information.

These are the main reasons for genetic predisposition DNA testing. Both children and adults of all ages benefit from getting an in-depth look at their genetic code. This test is easily performed and each person can use this information to promote current health and future health and well-being.

Types Of Prenatal Paternity Tests

3 Prenatal Paternity Tests

Have you been thinking about taking a prenatal paternity tests? Establishing paternity can be beneficial to all those involved. The DNA Clinic offers many types of paternity tests to best fit your circumstance and comfort level.

Postnatal testing, done after a child’s birth, involves a collection of the umbilical cord taken at the time of delivery, or a sample can be collected at a lab after the baby is released from the hospital. Either a buccal (cheek swab, which is most common) or a blood collection can be performed at that time, as well.

For prenatal paternity tests, or testing done during pregnancy, there are several options to choose from:

Non-Invasive Prenatal Paternity (NIPP)

A non-invasive prenatal paternity test is the most accurate and non-invasive (no potential harm can come to the baby) way to establish paternity before the baby is born. The process is state-of-the-art, combining the latest technology and proprietary methods of preserving and analyzing the baby’s DNA found naturally in the mother’s bloodstream. This test requires only a simple blood collection from the mother and alleged father and can be performed any time after the 8th week of pregnancy. This test is 99.9% accurate.



This test is performed in the second trimester, anywhere from the 14th-20th weeks of pregnancy. In this procedure, the doctor uses ultrasound to guide a thin needle into your uterus, through your abdomen. The needle draws out a small amount of amniotic fluid, which is then tested. Risks include a small chance of harming the baby and miscarriage. Other side effects may include cramping, leaking of amniotic fluid, and vaginal bleeding. A doctor’s consent is needed to do this procedure for paternity testing.


Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)

In this test, a thin needle or tube is inserted from the vagina, through the cervix, guided by an ultrasound, to obtain chorionic villi. Chorionic villi are little finger-like pieces of tissue attached to the wall of the uterus. The chorionic villi and the fetus come from the same fertilized egg, and have the same genetic makeup. This testing can be done earlier in pregnancy from the 10th-13th weeks. A doctor’s consent is also needed to do this procedure.
If you need prenatal paternity tests or have questions, please contact The DNA Clinic at 800-831-0178.

DNA Test Frequently Asked Questions

Below are DNA test frequently asked questions; how they are used, why they’re important, what they’re used for, how the samples are collected, and how they can help you. For more information about fee schedules and ordering, you can call 800-831-0178.

What is a DNA Paternity Test?

A paternity test compares the DNA of a child to that of his mother and alleged father to show the probability of whether or not the man is or is not the biological father of the child. The child and the alleged father can be tested alone but it is preferred to test the mother as well whenever possible.

Do I need a doctor’s order?

A doctor’s order is not required unless the DNA identity or relationship tests are being performed on a New York resident. In compliance with New York state law, The DNA Clinic must require a prescription, court order, or ordering by other authorized persons to perform tests on New York residents.

Do I need an attorney or court order?

An attorney or court order is not required if all parties involved agree to participate. However, In compliance with New York state law, The DNA Clinic must require a prescription, court order, or ordering by other authorized persons to perform tests on New York residents.

Can a DNA Paternity Test be done without the mother?

DNA Paternity Tests can be done without the mother; However, it is preferred that the mother also provide a DNA sample.

Can drug consumption or age effect results of the test?

No. A person’s DNA used in paternity testing does not change due to age or drug consumption.
What if there are two alleged fathers who are related to one another?
It is highly recommended to test both possible fathers if two related men are possible fathers of the child. It is important to notify the laboratory where the testing will take place that there are multiple possible fathers who are related, even if testing on both men cannot take place.

How is my personal information protected?

Your privacy and security are very important to us. When samples are completed at the collection sites, they are packaged in tamper-proof bags in preparation for shipping to our DNA testing laboratory. Entry into the DNA testing facility is only done so by restricted access. All computer systems are secured and all samples are bar-coded. Information on the case and any results are shared only with authorized individuals. Results are not released over the phone. As required by accreditation guidelines, all samples and DNA profiles are retained for a period of time, but are destroyed after the required storage period.

Can my DNA be used to test for any pre-existing conditions that may prevent me from receiving health care?

The DNA markers used for relationship testing are not known to provide information on specific physical or medical conditions that could affect health insurance coverage.

Why use The DNA Clinic?

For more than 30 years, The DNA Clinic has been the leader in the genetic testing field. We guarantee the quality of our results, and they come with speed, convenience, and most importantly, accuracy. We have a probability of paternity of either 99.99% or 0% with our results. Whether results are for personal use or are being used in a legal matter, The DNA Clinic has the support you need.

DNA Test Frequently Asked Questions – Specimen Collection

Can samples be collected in home?

In a non-legal test, the standard cheek swab testing may be collected at home or any other non-clinical setting. Such results are not intended for use in a court of law. Results using samples collected outside of a clinical setting are for personal use only.

Can I eat before the test?

Food consumption will not affect your DNA, however, food particles left inside the mouth could contaminate the sample collection. This may inhibit the extraction of DNA from the swab. If you have eaten recently, the collection technician will ask you to rinse out your mouth.

Who needs to be tested?

It is preferable to receiving testing from the child, alleged father, and the mother of the child. Testing is possible, however, without the mother’s sample, and in certain circumstances, such as when the alleged father is unavailable or deceased, it is possible to conduct a test using stored DNA samples from the alleged father or DNA from a close biological relative.

What types of samples are used for testing?

The cheek swab (buccal swab) is the standard sample taken for a paternity test. A long cotton swab is rubbed inside the inner cheek lining of a person’s mouth. Typically, four swabs are collected from each individual being tested.

Are buccal swabs as accurate as blood samples?

Both the buccal swabs and blood samples provide results with the same degree of accuracy. Because buccal swabs are easy and painless to collect, the majority of DNA paternity tests are done with them.

Is there a minimum age requirement for obtaining a sample?

There is no minimum age to collect a DNA sample. Buccal swabs and blood samples are both safe to collected from persons of all ages. Minors, however, must have consent from a legal guardian or a court order in order to collect the sample.

Where are samples collected?

One of our company-operated or contracted sites throughout North America will be where the samples from the DNA paternity test are collected.

Is there a collection site close to me?

The DNA Clinic consists of a nationwide network of more than 900 locations across the United States. There are no additional fees for samples collected at any of The DNA Clinic locations. The DNA Clinic is contracted with more than 10,000 collection sites globally, where additional fees may apply. Please use our Collection Site Locator to find a site near you.

Do all involved parties need to submit samples together?

All involved parties do not need to submit their samples together. Parties can provide samples at different times and from different cities or states. When placing your order, let us know if certain parties should be scheduled together or separately.

Can testing be done if one or more of the parties reside in different states?

Yes, all testing can be completed at different times and in different locations.

How is identity kept safe for the participants?

In a legal test, every involved adult party is required to provide government-issued photo identification at the time of collection. The individual collecting the specimen will examine the identification and will either record the information on the Chain of Custody form or they will make a photocopy to attach to the Chain of Custody form. A photograph is also taken of each party. Minor children will be identified through an official birth certificate and a government-issued photo ID if it is available.

What do I need to have with me at the appointment?

In a legal test, every adult being tested must bring government-issued photo identification (typically a driver’s license or a passport). If possible, government-issued identification should be provided for the child as well (usually a birth certificate).

DNA Test Frequently Asked Questions – Prenatal DNA

Are prenatal paternity tests available?

Your personal qualified medical practitioner can collect a sample prenatally of either amniotic fluid or using a chorionic villus sampling.

What is a Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)?

A CVS is a sample of the placenta that is collected during early pregnancy by a qualified medical practitioner.

What is amniocentesis?

Amniocentesis is a procedure in which a sample of amniotic fluid is collected during early pregnancy by a qualified medical practitioner.

Who collects a CVS or amniotic fluid sample?

Both sample types are collected by a physician. If prenatal testing will be completed, a collection kit with a Chain of Custody form as well as shipping instructions will be provided to your physician.

Does a physician need to collect samples from the parents?

The doctor can collect buccal swab samples from the alleged father and the mother. If the physician prefers not to, The DNA Clinic can arrange an appointment for the alleged father and the mother to give the samples at a local collection site.

Is a doctor’s order required for a prenatal test?

A doctor’s order is not generally required. However, if one of the involved individuals is a New York resident, in compliance with New York state law, The DNA Clinic must require a prescription or court order for all DNA identity and/or relationship tests performed by them.

Do I need an attorney or court order for a prenatal test?

If all parties involved agree to participate voluntarily, neither a court order or an attorney is required. However, if one of the involved individuals is a New York resident, in compliance with New York state law, The DNA Clinic must require a prescription or court order for all DNA identity and/or relationship tests performed by them.

Does the mother have to provide a sample in a prenatal paternity test?

Yes, a mother’s sample is required in all prenatal tests. The mother’s sample is tested to ensure that the sample from the fetus is pure and originates from the fetus, and not the mother.

DNA Test Frequently Asked Questions – Fees

How much is a DNA Test?

DNA test range in price. Many home test kits will cost $35 or less for the kit. Then you will pay another $80 to get it processed by the lab and

What does your fee include?

The DNA Clinic’s fee includes specimen collection at The DNA Clinic facility, shipment of the sample to our DNA laboratory, DNA analysis, the generation of written reports as well as the shipment of those reports to the tested parties by mail/email and to their attorneys, if applicable.

Do I have to pay an extra fee for specimen collection?

Fees included through The DNA Clinic include the specimen collection(s) when samples are collected at any of the The DNA Clinic locations. Collection fees may apply at other locations not associated with The DNA Clinic.

Is DNA paternity testing covered by health insurance?

DNA paternity testing is considered a non-medical test and is not covered by health insurance plans.

DNA Test Frequently Asked Questions – Results

How long does the test take?

Usually, the standard DNA paternity test takes 3-5 business days to provide results once all samples are received in our DNA testing laboratory.

What will the results indicate?

Results from The DNA Clinic usually provide a probability of paternity of either 0.00% or 99.99% or greater.

Will results be accepted in court?

The DNA Clinic is a fully accredited laboratory. Results of our legal DNA paternity test may be used in a legal matter and may also be accepted in a court of law, assuming the Chain of Custody form was completed according to the strict chain of custody guidelines held by The DNA Clinic. Results of a non-legal test are not intended for use in legal matters.

Acknowledgment of Paternity AOP

It’s very common to have questions about paternity during pregnancy and many hospitals require Acknowledgment of Paternity (AOP). Searching for and finding answers to your concerns can have both physical, emotional, and financial benefits for both you and your unborn child.

The DNA Clinic can help answer your questions and guide you through this sensitive process. You can call 800-831-0178 to speak to someone personally about what your options are.

Why Is Establishing Paternity Important with Acknowledgment of Paternity (AOP)?Acknowledgment of Paternity (AOP) - New mother with baby and father in hospital smiling

Establishing paternity is important to ensure the wellbeing of your child; It can also help protect his or her future.

Determining a biological relationship is important for several reasons:

To establish legal and social benefits, including social security, veteran’s, and inheritance benefits. It also provides an accurate medical history for the child, giving the healthcare provider important information to diagnose and manage your child’s health. Establishing paternity can also provide the opportunity for your child to have a positive relationship with his or her father.

After the birth of the child, the majority of states have laws that require an Acknowledgment of Paternity (AOP) form to be completed at the hospital to legally establish who the child’s father is. After the form is signed, couples have a limited amount of time, depending on the state, to request a DNA paternity test and amend the AOP. This form is filed becomes a legally binding document and is filed with the Bureau of Vital Statistics.

If the allowed time to amend and change the AOP expires, the father listed as the AOP on the birth certificate could be held legally responsible for the child, even if he later proves that he is not the biological father.

Some states require an unmarried couple to have a paternity test in order to list a father’s name on the birth certificate. If the mother is married to someone other than the father of the child, the husband can be listed on the birth certificate as the legal father, unless otherwise disputed by a paternity test.

If you need a paternity test to ensure the right man is named as the father, call the DNA Clinic at 800-831-0178.

Learn About DNA Paternity Testing

To learn about DNA Paternity testing, they are designed to determine whether or not a specific man is a child’s biological father. Using a small sample of bodily fluid or tissue, the test can confirm that a man and child are a DNA match. Since a child’s DNA is a mix of each parent, a paternity test can confirm or disprove whether a man is a baby’s biological father.

Why Take a Paternity Test?

There are any number of reasons to take a paternity test, and the most obvious, of course, is that a man isn’t certain he’s the father. Other reasons include:Learn About DNA Paternity Testing

  • A court order
  • Adoption
  • To obtain medical history
  • Strengthen the parental bond

Some states require that a man undergo a paternity test to put his name on the birth certificate if he is not married to the child’s mother.

How Accurate is DNA Testing?

A paternity test can indicate with 100% accuracy that a man is not the father of a child. It can also confirm that a specific man is the father of a child with 99.9% accuracy. Because siblings share DNA, more than one genetic marker is looked at, which significantly reduces the risk of error.

What Samples Are Required for DNA Testing?

The cells most commonly used for DNA paternity are from a cheek swab on the inside of the mouth or from blood. However, they can come from any cell in the human body. Even hair contains DNA.

How Does The DNA Test Work?

Generally, the inside of the cheek is swiped with a cotton swab not unlike a Q-Tip. This removes skin cells (called buccal cells) that contain samples of a person’s unique genetic profile. These are sealed and sent to the lab where the genetic sequences are tested to see if they’re a match.

To test for paternity, samples are taken from the mother, supposed father and the child. Half of the DNA profile will match the mother’s and then it’s just a matter of analyzing the results to see if the father is a genetic match. If the results are not a match, then the man tested is not the child’s biological father.

Can Paternity Be Confirmed During Pregnancy?

Learn About DNA Paternity Testing During Pregnancy

Can A Paternity Test Be Done During Pregnancy?

The short answer is yes. However, prenatal testing has a risk of miscarriage or harming the fetus, so most doctors won’t recommend it. Using invasive procedures for paternity testing also requires receiving the doctor’s consent.

Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is for pregnancies between 11 and 13 weeks. Using an ultrasound, a doctor guides a needle or tube through the vagina and cervix. The chorionic villi are removed from the uterine wall to be tested. In general, this procedure is used for early diagnosis of conditions like Down Syndrome or Cystic Fibrosis.

In amniocentesis a needle is inserted through the mother’s abdomen and into the womb to collect some of the amniotic fluid, which surrounds and protects the baby while it’s in the womb. Amniocentesis can be conducted during the second trimester, between 14 and 20 weeks of pregnancy.

The safest and least invasive prenatal paternity test is the Non-Invasive Prenatal Paternity (NIPP). It requires collecting a blood sample from the mother and supposed father. It uses state-of-the-art technology to analyze the DNA of the child found naturally in the mother’s bloodstream and extract the father’s genetic code. The procedure is 99.9% accurate and can be done anytime after the 8th week of pregnancy.

How Much Does DNA Testing Cost?

The costs of a test vary greatly depending on the test and the information gathered by it. For instance, a lab test, which is the most conclusive and the most complete, done by an accredited facility can cost as much as %500. However, for a prenatal paternity test, the costs will be much greater. It requires an ultrasound and doctor’s fees on top of the test itself.

How Long Does it Take to Get Results?

Waiting to find out whether or not a child is his could make a man crazy. Fortunately, the results from a paternity test get back quickly, in as little as 7-10 days. However, getting results from prenatal paternity tests can take up to a month.

Finding a Testing Facility

Labs accredited by the AABB (formerly the American Association of Blood Banks) meet established standards for accuracy and service in relationship testing, such as paternity testing. To find AABB accredited facilities, visit AABB Accredited Relationship Testing Facilities or call us at 800-831-0178 to find your local testing center.


BBC Science. How Does DNA Testing Work? Accessed 9/2/2016
Science Museum. Who Am I?. Accessed 9/2/2016
Mayo Clinic. Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS). Accessed 9/2/2016.
National Human Genome Research Institute. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA). Accessed 9/2/2016.
American Pregnancy Association. Paternity Testing. Accessed 9/2/2016.

Know Your DNA Ancestry & Live Longer

Know-Your-Health-Ancestry-TreeTo know your DNA ancestry, there can be all sorts of reasons why a DNA test could help a person identify ancestry medical issues. One of these reasons is what geneticists delicately refer to as a non-paternal event (NPE). This occurs when someone’s biological father differs from who he or she has been told it was. Although not all people who take a DNA test will receive such dramatic results, many will have the experience of discovering that they have ancestry medical issues that they may never known before.

Many of the descendants of Thomas Jefferson, for instance, are also descended from his slave, Sally Hemings. DNA is often a winding road that may lead you to some unexpected and fascinating places. However, there are also many practical applications for it. Discovering that you have a propensity for certain illnesses can make you more aware of them. Finding out that you have longer telomeres may be of some comfort to those who strive for longevity. Obviously, for those who are in their reproductive years and concerned about genetic diseases, The DNA Clinic testing is a way to soothe your worries.

If you’re adopted or donor-conceived person, getting to know your DNA a ancestry test may be one of the only practical ways for you to find out more about your heritage.

Know Your DNA Ancestry Medical HistoryAlthough family trees, scrapbooks and other clues from your family’s past can be useful for certain purposes, DNA testing offers you a direct connection to your ancestry. With science on your side, you may uncover a history that is even more fascinating and inspiring than you could have ever imagined. Some DNA tests even offer clues about everything from your potential athletic performance to your preferences for cilantro.

Some people have been surprised to learn that they share some DNA with celebrities or important figures from the past. A few services will test what your percentage of Neanderthal ancestry is, which can be very fun to discover. Truly, to know your DNA ancestry type testing has given us so many new ways to explore who we are on the deepest, most fundamental level. Although your results may not be shocking or earth-shattering, chances are that you will learn something new about yourself when you receive your results. With this incredible new technology at our fingertips — at an affordable price — there’s never been a better time to take a closer look at your genetic big picture.


Can A Paternity Test Be Done During Pregnancy

Can A Paternity Test Be Done During PregnancyWhen it comes to getting a paternity test there are many different questions that need answered: “Can a paternity test be done during pregnancy?” “Does a paternity test hurt?” “Where can I get one done?” “When can I get tested?” “What if the father is not willing to contribute DNA?” The DNA Clinic is there to answer all these questions. They have many different locations and procedures that can run DNA testing which makes them the easy, affordable and knowledge option. There are two main procedures when it comes to paternity testing during pregnancy. Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling are both invasive tests and also has a small risk of miscarriage.

  • Amniocentesis is where the doctor inserts a small needle into the womb to take a tiny amount of amniotic fluid. This is done through the abdomen. It nearly painless and can be seen through an ultra sound. This procedure can be done as early as the 14th week or second trimester.
  • Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a paternity test where the doctor, using a tube through the vagina, gathers chorionic villi, found on the walls of the uterus, for DNA testing. This test is also done with the aid of an ultrasound. It can be done as early as the 10th-13th week.

Another thing to get consider when getting a paternity test is there is a legal or informational paternity DNA test. Legal can be used in court systems and information is for personal knowledge. When you are unsure as to whom the father could be doctors suggest that a paternity test is the best option because of a women’s ovulation. A women has a window of up to 10 days when the child could be conceived and, because ovulation does not always happen at the same time during a menstruation cycle, it makes it nearly impossible to determine the exact day a child was conceived on, especially if there have been multiple sexual partners in that time frame.

The last concern some have when getting a paternity test is if the possible father of the child is not being cooperative about providing DNA. There are other ways to determine if they are related. One way is to check the possible father’s parent’s DNA with the babies. Another is through other sibling, more than one is needed to help determine with better accuracy. For other options calling the DNA Clinic is your best source of information.

The DNA Clinic understands the sensitivity of this test and is willing to answer questions anyone may have. They have doctor-patient agreement and will keep the test results private unless otherwise agreed upon. With all the science and resources that DNA testing has you can do a paternity test before the baby is born, have peace of mind of up to 100% accuracy and be a nearly painless procedure. The DNA Clinic has many different locations with experienced doctors that can help determine the best procedure for your situation.

Guide to Paternity Testing

Generally, DNA Testing is used to determine or identify the genetic information of an individual. The genetic information is called DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid. It is sometimes called DNA fingerprinting, which is a term used to describe that DNA information is very unlikely to be exactly the same on two persons just like there are no two persons with the same fingerprint.

DNA testing can establish a child’s biological father and can end the agony of parents and give the child some peace of mind. Undergoing a paternity testing is a decision that must be think about many times beforehand especially when results may not be what it is expected to be and could potentially lead to a chaotic mess in the family.

There is no need to take large samples of cells for paternal DNA testing. Swabbing on the sides of the cheek for both the father and the child will contain adequate DNA information to establish their relationship. This is otherwise known as buccal swabbing, which is a painless and fast procedure of obtaining DNA samples.

Reasons for Doing Paternity Testing

The primary reason for paternity testing as mentioned is to establish the biological father of a child in question. Other times, the test is also used to determine the parents of babies who are suspected to be switched at birth – intentionally or accidentally.

Lab Testing Preparation

Before you can submit yourself to paternity testing, you must tell the medical professional whether you’ve had recent blood transfusion in a period of three months. There is nothing to prepare prior to undergoing the test.

If you have any questions, concerns or doubts, it may be best to talk to your attending physician prior to the test such as risks, how it is done and the interpretation of results.

Laboratory Setting – Obtaining a Buccal Swab

As mentioned, buccal swabbing is non-invasive, painless and quick procedure of obtaining a DNA sample. It involves swabbing a cotton-like kit to the sides of the cheek. This is to collect loose cells of the cheek, which will then be processed in the laboratory.

What can Affect Paternity Testing?

There are several things that can affect the test, which can either defer you from taking the test or invalidate the paternity testing results, including:

  • Recent blood transfusion within the past three months
  • Inadequate sample size but for voluntary paternity DNA testing this may not be a source of concern

What Makes Paternity Testing Legal?

There are paternity test kits available that can be performed at home. While this can give you a fairly good idea on DNA fingerprinting, it is not considered legal especially when it is required as evidence in a court proceeding. The court of law will require you to have results from a professional and qualified laboratory.

Apart from DNA fingerprinting, other tests can also help in establishing paternity over a child such as genetic testing and karyotyping, which can also be used to detect diseases that are inherited.

If you want to have paternity testing done, you should always consider the facts first by talking to your attending physician and other persons that may be involved in the test.

Carrying Out a DNA Test for Family Immigration Cases

DNA test for family based immigration cases is habitually used in immigration cases where a citizen or a resident of a country wishes to support a family member for admission into the concerned country. In such situations, the sponsor and their family member are required to establish their biological relationship in the course of DNA testing, such as maternity test, paternity test, family relationship test, etc. Immigration organizations all over the world need that the DNA test for family based immigration cases should be performed by the recognized laboratories.

Family Relationship DNA Testing

The recognized DNA test laboratories that are performing the DNA test for family based immigration cases, will carry out DNA Parentage Tests to determine whether a male can be the father of the child and, or, whether a female can be the mother of the child. These laboratories offer a complete service DNA family relationship testing by performing a huge number of hereditary family relationship determination checks.

In situations where the alleged father is unknown or deceased, the fatherly-grandparents can be checked to decide the probability that they are the true fatherly grandparents of the child through the Grandparentage DNA Test. Other relations may be employed if both grandparents do not exist.

Usually, two kids are tested in the Sibling DNA Test to decide if they belong to the identical biological parent or parents.

The Family Relationship DNA Testing can as well, decides whether the twins are identical twins or fraternal twins through the Zygosity DNA Test.

In situations where a relative is missing or deceased, the DNA reconstruction test, which is a kind of Family Relationship DNA Test, may be carried out with the intention of identifying the decedent and, or to decide the biological relationship of person to the known relations. This kind of DNA testing is feasible because the genes of the missing or deceased relative are present in his recognized biological family members, such as his parents, his known kids, his siblings, etc.

DNA Paternity Testing – what it offers?

DNA Paternity Testing offers the systematic determination whether a male can be the biological father of the child. All people take over their genetic structure or DNA from their parents. In this testing, the DNA profile of a child is compared with the DNA profile of the identified father for the proof of the inheritance. The test report is conveyed with strict privacy, and complete, professional aftercare. While considering the DNA Paternity Testing, you have numerous testing alternatives, according to your requirements and situations such as:

  1. You may choose to arrange an authorized DNA Paternity Test. This type of DNA testing produces the Court prepared and legally justifiable DNA paternity test outcomes.
  2. You may choose to arrange an at home DNA Paternity Test. The results of this type of DNA test are obtained only for personal information, and they are not legally justifiable
  3. Under some circumstances, you may find it essential to carry out DNA paternity testing on an unborn kid for the purpose of ascertaining biological paternity through a DNA test known as the Prenatal DNA Paternity Test.
  4. In situations where the alleged father is missing or deceased, DNA Paternity Testing might be carried out through a DNA test called Family Reconstruction DNA Test.

The major difference between the at home DNA Paternity Test and the authorized DNA Paternity Test is that in the authorized DNA Paternity Test the laboratories coordinate the collections of your DNA specimen at one of thousands of expert DNA specimen collection facilities. In the case of the at home DNA Paternity Test, you have to collect DNA specimens from all tested family members disjointedly and confidentially in the solitude of your home for the test, using a DNA Specimen Collection Kit offered by the DNA testing laboratories.